From: steve austin
Date: 2001-02-28 12:37:00 UTC
Subject: Re: [Ferret-Health-list] ADV Testing
If you go to Avecon.com under small animal testing I believe
is the info on the ADV test, what it tests for and how it
works. I am attaching it here, but am not sure if that is
o.k. to do. SO, if it is edited just check out the site.
Basically, false positives are unlikely, and false negatives
are more the concern. Perhaps the animal is exposed to ADV,
but not producing antibodies yet, or the virus has replicated
enough for detection. So, you need more than one test to be
sure. I believe this is only necessary when testing in a home
where there is exposure, like a shelter, taking in rescues,
bringing in new ferrets, going to shows, breeding etc. If you
have a few ferrets and all test negative, I believe the
chances are low that you need to keep testing.
However, if even one tests positive, then all negative ferrets
in that home should be testing a few times a year.
I plan on testing my crew, but think I will just do a random
sampling, for two reasons. One I can't afford to test all of
them- it will take up money that should go for shots, or
emergency care. I may then test the others one at a time over
a longer period of time, so the cost isn't all at once.
Second, although I have taken in rescues in the past I will
not do so any longer, I would take in a ferret temporarily,
kept separate from mine,and may even test it for ADV. But, I
won't integrate any more to my group.
Also, I am keeping mine and if they have it, they have it. If
they show signs of any illness that can't be explained, etc.
then I will have that ferret tested.
Just my opinion since we were discussing ADV testing.
"Test from Avecon DiagnosticsInc. is a sensitive, specific
Immunoassay for the detection of ferret antibody caused
exclusively by exposure to ADV. In this test, ADV Antibody in
ferret saliva or blood (serum/plasma) irreversibly binds to a
single ADV protein (identical to protein from the replicating
form of ADV, but non-infectious) coated onto a plastic
surface. A labeled Immuno-chemical is added which binds ONLY
to FERRET ADV ANTIBODY present in the reaction mixture. The
label is detected by a sensitive laboratory instrument called
a spectrophotometer and is directly proportional to the
quantity of Ferret ADV Antibody in the sample.
Detects ADV Antibody only from virus that has
replicated; No False Positives from reactivity with
other ADV proteins
No cross-reactivity with ADV Antibody from other
mustelids (mink) or other species
No False Positives caused by antibodies to
vaccine-derived cellular debris
It is recommended that testing for ADV Antibody be
performed a minimum of 4 times per year on each
ferret. Testing is especially important before
attempting to breed, and prior to transferring a
ferret from one household to another.
Conclusive diagnosis of ADV requires the
demonstration of antibody to a specific protein of
ADV called the "non-virion" protein, the presence
of which clearly indicates that viral replication
has occurred. A procedure known as
counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) actually
detects antibodies to several other ADV-related
proteins. Moreover, false positive results can
occur with this technique due to cross-reactivity
of the numerous proteins in the ADV whole viral
lysate used in the test with antibodies against
cellular debris from vaccines used in ferrets.
This test also relies upon visual interpretation
of results; with low titers, this can especially
lead to the false assumption of a negative result.
The ADV Antibody ELISA Test from Avecon
Diagnostics, Inc. is a sensitive, specific
Immunoassay that only detects antibody to the
non-virion protein of ADV and removes any doubt
surrounding the diagnosis of ADV in ferrets. By
using a single, recombinant protein produced ONLY
by replicating ADV as the reacting species, and
not the whole viral lysate, there is NO
POSSIBILITY of cross-reactivity with antibodies
other than those caused by a recent or prior
infection with ADV. Additionally, a specific
anti-Ferret Immuno-chemical is used in the
detection step of the ELISA and has no
cross-reactivity with antibodies from any other
species, including mink.
Journal of Immunology 118(4): 1249-1251 (1977)
Veterinary Record 125: 232-235 (1989)
Journal of Virology 69(3): 1802-1809 (1995)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62(5):