From: Bruce Williams, DVM
Date: 2001-06-25 14:38:00 UTC
Subject: Re: Dr. Williams -second post
--- In Ferret-Health-list@y..., rumtum99@s... wrote:
> Dear Dr. Williams,
> I am sorry that I am writing again as I do not want to be a
> When I wrote to see if you would have, or know where to obtain the
> measurements for a ferret heart I had just stopped home to feed and
> medicate my other guys we were only part way through the tests for
> Mikey when I wrote. I volunteer at the clinic once a week, so I
> of get fitted in. My vet had checked on VIM, with a vet at the
> Medical Centre among other places. No one seems to know them.
Echocardiography is an area that is far outside the realm of my
specialty. However, the following reference may be of help to your
Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2000 Sep-Oct;41(5):452-6 Related Articles,
M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic findings in normal ferrets
sedated with ketamine hydrochloride and midazolam.
Stepien RL, Benson KG, Wenholz LJ.
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of
Veterinary Medicine, Madison 53706, USA.
M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic values were obtained from 30
normal adult ferrets (14 neutered females, 13 neutered males, 3
intact males) sedated with an intramuscular combination of ketamine
hydrochloride and midazolam. Routine M-mode measurements of the left
and right ventricle, left atrium (LA) and aorta (AO) and Doppler
measurements of aortic and pulmonic outflow, and mitral inflow were
recorded. The following values were calculated: LA:AO diameter, ratio
of peak E: peak A wave velocity (E:A ratio) for mitral inflow, and
stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) for
both pulmonary and aortic outflow tracts. Maximal aortic velocities
(AOmax) and velocity-time integral values (AO VTI) were significantly
less than corresponding pulmonary outflow tract values (PAmax, PA
VTI) but there was no difference in calculated values for SV, CO or
CI. Calculated CO values were in the range expected based on the size
of the species. Difficulties in aligning the aortic outflow tract for
Doppler imaging may make pulmonary outflow Doppler values more
consistent for use in estimating volume flow in ferrets.
I would submit that the calculated values in this paper would be what
you are looking for.
A vet who does a fair amount of ultrasound in ferrets in the
Washington D.C. area would be Dr. Jean Wardell, Austin Vet Clinic,
7323 Little River Turnpike,Annandale, VA, 22003, 703-941-5300, and
she may be of help in this pursuit.
With kindest regards,
Bruce Williams, DVM