Message Number: FHL4890 | New FHL Archives Search
From: Sukie Crandall
Date: 2008-05-10 17:54:57 UTC
Subject: [ferrethealth] abstracts
To: fhl <>

By using amber glasses and a very low monitor light setting I can=20
tolerate just a few minutes at a time online at this stage of healing=20
so am treating myself and all here to some new abstracts. I will read=20
them later in paper copies because that is more comfy so apologies if=20
any are not appropriate or have been given before.

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 May 1;232(9):1338-43.
Long-term outcome of domestic ferrets treated surgically for=20
hyperadrenocorticism: 130 cases (1995-2004).
Swiderski JK, Seim HB 3rd, MacPhail CM,Campbell TW, Johnston MS,=20
Monnet E.
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and=20
Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO=20
80523, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term survival rate and factors that=20
affect survival time of domestic ferrets treated surgically for=20
hyperadrenocorticism. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series.=20
ANIMALS: 130 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism that were treated=20
surgically. PROCEDURES: Medical records of ferrets surgically treated=20
for hyperadrenocorticism were reviewed. Data recorded included=20
signalment, duration of clinical signs prior to hospital admission,=20
CBC values, serum biochemical analysis results, anesthetic time,=20
surgical time, concurrent diseases, adrenal gland affected (right,=20
left, or both [bilateral]), histopathologic diagnosis, surgical=20
procedure, caudal vena caval involvement (yes or no), postoperative=20
melena (yes or no), days in hospital after surgery, and whether=20
clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism developed after surgery.=20
RESULTS: 130 ferrets were entered in the study (11 of 130 ferrets were=20
admitted and underwent surgery twice). The 1- and 2-year survival=20
rates were 98% and 88%, respectively. A 50% survival rate was never=20
reached. Combined partial adrenal gland resection with cryosurgery had=20
a significantly negative effect on survival time. No other risk=20
factors were identified. Survival time was not significantly affected=20
by either histopathologic diagnosis or specific affected adrenal gland=20
(right, left, or bilateral). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:=20
Ferrets with adrenal gland masses that were treated surgically had a=20
good prognosis. Survival time of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism=20
undergoing surgery was not affected by the histologic characteristic=20
of the tumor, the adrenal glands affected (right, left, or bilateral),=20
or complete versus partial adrenal gland resection. Debulking was a=20
sufficient surgical technique to allow a favorable long-term outcome=20
when complete excision was not possible.

PMID: 18447778 [PubMed - in process]


Vet Pathol. 2008 Mar;45(2):236-246.
Clinicopathologic Features of a Systemic Coronavirus-Associated=20
Disease Resembling Feline Infectious Peritonitis in the Domestic=20
Ferret (Mustela putorius).
Garner MM, Ramsell K, Morera N, Juan-Sall=C3=A9s C, Jim=C3=A9nez J, Ardiaca=
Montesinos A, Teifke JP,L=C3=B6hr CV, Evermann JF, Baszler TV, Nordhausen =

RW, Wise AG, Maes RK, Kiupel M.
654=E2=80=85W. Main, Monroe, WA 98296 (USA).

From 2002 to 2007, 23 ferrets from Europe and the United States were=20
diagnosed with systemic pyogranulomatous inflammation resembling=20
feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The average age at the time of=20
diagnosis was 11 months. The disease was progressive in all cases, and=20
average duration of clinical illness was 67 days. Common clinical=20
findings were anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, and large, palpable=20
intra-abdominal masses; less frequent findings included hind limb=20
paresis, central nervous system signs, vomiting, and dyspnea. Frequent=20
hematologic findings were mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, and=20
hypergammaglobulinemia. Grossly, whitish nodules were found in=20
numerous tissues, most frequently the mesenteric adipose tissue and=20
lymph nodes, visceral peritoneum, liver, kidneys, spleen, and lungs.=20
One ferret had a serous abdominal effusion. Microscopically,=20
pyogranulomatous inflammation involved especially the visceral=20
peritoneum, mesenteric adipose tissue, liver, lungs, kidneys, lymph=20
nodes, spleen, pancreas, adrenal glands, and/or blood vessels.=20
Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for coronavirus antigen=20
using monoclonal antibody FIPV3-70. Electron microscopic examination=20
of inflammatory lesions identified particles with coronavirus=20
morphology in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Partial sequencing of the=20
coronavirus spike gene obtained from frozen tissue indicates that the=20
virus is related to ferret enteric coronavirus.


Virology. 2008 May 2 [Epub ahead of print]
Virus growth and antibody responses following respiratory tract=20
infection of ferrets and mice with WT and P/V mutants of the=20
paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5.
Capraro GA, Johnson JB, Kock ND, Parks GD.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University=20
School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC=20
27157-1064, USA.

P/V gene substitutions convert the non-cytopathic paramyxovirus Simian=20
Virus 5 (SV5), which is a poor inducer of host cell responses in human=20
tissue culture cells, into a mutant (P/V-CPI-) that induces high=20
levels of apoptosis, interferon (IFN)-beta, and proinflammatory=20
cytokines. However, the effect of SV5-P/V gene mutations on virus=20
growth and adaptive immune responses in animals has not been=20
determined. Here, we used two distinct animal model systems to test=20
the hypothesis that SV5-P/V mutants which are more potent activators=20
of innate responses in tissue culture will also elicit higher=20
antiviral antibody responses. In mouse cells, in vitro studies=20
identified a panel of SV5-P/V mutants that ranged in their ability to=20
limit IFN responses. Intranasal infection of mice with these WT and P/
V mutant viruses elicited equivalent anti-SV5 IgG responses at all=20
doses tested, and viral titers recovered from the respiratory tract=20
were indistinguishable. In primary cultures of ferret lung=20
fibroblasts, WT rSV5 and P/V-CPI- viruses had phenotypes similar to=20
those established in human cell lines, including differential=20
induction of IFN secretion, IFN signaling and apoptosis. Intranasal=20
infection of ferrets with a low dose of WT rSV5 elicited ~500 fold=20
higher anti-SV5 serum IgG responses compared to the P/V-CPI- mutant,=20
and this correlated with overall higher viral titers for the WT virus=20
in tracheal tissues. There was a dose-dependent increase in antibody=20
response to infection of ferrets with P/V-CPI-, but not with WT rSV5.=20
Together our data indicate that WT rSV5 and P/V mutants can elicit=20
distinct innate and adaptive immunity phenotypes in the ferret animal=20
model system, but not in the mouse system. We present a model for the=20
effect of P/V gene substitutions on SV5 growth and immune responses in=20

Virology. 2008 Apr 15 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Severe seasonal influenza in ferrets correlates with reduced=20
interferon and increased IL-6 induction.
Svitek N, Rudd PA, Obojes K, Pillet S, von Messling V.
INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec, Laval, QC, Canada.

Even though ferrets are one of the principal animal models for=20
influenza pathogenesis, the lack of suitable immunological reagents=20
has so far limited their use in host response studies. Using recently=20
established real-time PCR assays for a panel of ferret cytokines, we=20
analyzed the local ferret immune response to human influenza isolates=20
of the H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes that varied in their virulence. We=20
observed that the severity of clinical signs correlated with gross-=20
and histopathological changes in the lungs and was subtype-
independent. Strains causing a mild disease were associated with a=20
strong and rapid innate response and upregulation of IL-8, while=20
severe infections were characterized by a lesser induction of type I=20
and II interferons and strong IL-6 upregulation. These findings=20
suggest that more virulent strains may interfere more efficiently with=20
the host response at early disease stages.

PMID: 18420248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher


J Infect Dis. 2008 May 1;197(9):1315-1323.
Oseltamivir Prophylactic Regimens Prevent H5N1 Influenza Morbidity and=20
Mortality in a Ferret Model.
Boltz DA, Rehg JE, McClaren J, Webster RG, Govorkova EA.
1Department of Infectious Diseases (Division of Virology) and=20
2Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children=E2=80=99s Research Hospital, =

Memphis, Tennessee.

Background. @nbsp; Current oseltamivir prophylactic regimens may not=20
be as effective against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses as=20
they are against less pathogenic strains. An optimal regimen is=20
urgently needed. Methods. @nbsp; Ferrets were given the neuraminidase=20
inhibitor oseltamivir orally for 10 days (5 or 10 mg/kg once daily or=20
2.5 or 5 mg/kg twice daily). Prophylaxis was initiated 1 day before=20
infection, and oseltamivir was given 4 h before the ferrets were=20
inoculated with a lethal dose of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza=20
virus. Results. @nbsp; At a dose of 5 mg/kg once daily, oseltamivir=20
prevented death but not clinical signs of infection in ferrets; severe=20
pathology was observed in the lungs, brain, and liver. At 10 mg/kg=20
once daily, oseltamivir reduced clinical symptoms and systemic virus=20
replication, but pathology was observed in the internal organs. The=20
best results were obtained at a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg given twice=20
daily. Both regimens resulted in 100% survival and the absence of=20
clinical symptoms, systemic virus spread, and organ pathology. Serum=20
antibody titers were comparable across regimens and were sufficient to=20
protect against rechallenge. Conclusions. @nbsp; An increased dose of=20
oseltamivir or twice-daily administration effectively protects ferrets=20
against morbidity and mortality caused by H5N1 infection and does not=20
interfere with the development of protective antibodies against=20
subsequent H5N1 infection.

PMID: 18422444


Curr Protoc Immunol. 2001 May;Chapter 19:Unit 19.8.

Helicobacter animal models.
Nedrud JG, Blanchard TG.
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

In this unit, protocols for growing Helicobacter organisms on plates=20
or in liquid cultures are presented, followed by protocols for=20
infecting mice with Helicobacter felis and H. pylori and for infecting=20
ferrets with H. mustelae. Also, a procedure is described for adapting=20
an H. pylori isolate to growth in mice. Support protocols describe=20
methods for quantifying numbers of Helicobacter organisms, and how to=20
create a growth curve for Helicobacter cultures. One important=20
technique in investigating Helicobacter infection is assaying the=20
disease processes that occur in the stomach, and a protocol is=20
provided for preparing tissue sections for this purpose. It is also=20
important to confirm that organisms recovered from tissue samples are,=20
in fact, Helicobacter species, and a support protocol describes=20
morphological and biochemical tests for this purpose. Helicobacter=20
bacteria produce large amounts of the enzyme urease, and a support=20
protocol describes how to perform a rapid urease test on animal-tissue=20
biopsies. Assays of Helicobacter-specific immune responses require=20
appropriate antigens, and preparation of both Helicobacter lysates and=20
outer-membrane proteins are detailed for use in these assays.

PMID: 18432759 [PubMed - in process


Theriogenology. 2008 Apr 24 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Use of a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist implant as an=20
alternative for surgical castration in male ferrets (Mustela putorius=20
Schoemaker NJ, van Deijk R, Muijlaert B, Kik MJ, Kuijten AM, de Jong=20
FH, Trigg TE, Kruitwagen CL, Mol JA.
Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of=20
Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Surgical castration in ferrets has been implicated as an etiological=20
factor in the development of hyperadrenocorticism in this species due=20
to a castration-related increase in plasma gonadotropins. In search=20
for a suitable alternative, the effect of treatment with the depot=20
GnRH-agonist implant, deslorelin, on plasma testosterone=20
concentrations and concurrent testes size, spermatogenesis, and the=20
typical musky odor of intact male ferrets was investigated. Twenty-one=20
male ferrets, equally divided into three groups, were either=20
surgically castrated, received a slow release deslorelin implant or=20
received a placebo implant. Plasma FSH and testosterone=20
concentrations, testis size and spermatogenesis were all suppressed=20
after the use of the deslorelin implant. The musky odor in the ferrets=20
which had received a deslorelin implant was less compared to the=20
ferrets which were either surgically castrated or had received a=20
placebo implant. These results indicate that the deslorelin implant=20
effectively prevents reproduction and the musky odor of intact male=20
ferrets and is therefore considered a suitable alternative for=20
surgical castration in these animals.

Sukie (not a vet)

Recommended ferret health links:

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


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