From: Sukie Crandall
Date: 2009-12-24 02:29:27 UTC
Subject: [ferrethealth] abstracts
To: fhl <email@example.com>
World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Dec 28;15(48):6034-43.
Reduced normogastric electrical activity associated with emesis: A=20
telemetric study in ferrets.
Percie du Sert N, Chu KM, Wai MK, Rudd JA, Andrews PL.
Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St. George's University of London,=20
Cranmer Terrace, SW17 0RE, London, United Kingdom.
AIM: To characterize the gastric myoelectric activity (GMA) and intra-
abdominal pressure changes induced by emetic stimuli (apomorphine and=20
cisplatin) in the ferret. METHODS: GMA and intra-abdominal pressure=20
were recorded in conscious, unrestrained ferrets surgically implanted=20
with radiotelemetry transmitters. Animals were challenged with=20
apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg sc) and cisplatin (10 mg/kg ip), and the=20
emetic response was quantified via direct observation and intra-
abdominal pressure recording for 1 h and 4 h, respectively. The GMA=20
was analyzed by spectral analysis; the parameters used to characterize=20
the GMA were the dominant frequency (DF) and the repartition of=20
spectral power in the bradygastric, normogastric and tachygastric=20
frequency ranges. RESULTS: Retches were identified on the intra-
abdominal pressure trace as peaks 0.30 +/- 1.01 s in duration and=20
59.57 +/- 2.74 mmHg in amplitude, vomit peaks were longer (0.82 +/-=20
0.06 s, P < 0.01) and reached a higher pressure (87.73 +/- 8.12 mmHg,=20
P < 0.001). The number of retches and vomits quantified via direct=20
observation [apomorphine: 65.5 +/- 11.8 retches + vomits (R+V),=20
cisplatin: 202.6 +/- 64.1 R+V] and intra-abdominal pressure=20
(apomorphine: 68.3 +/- 13.7 R+V, n =3D 8; cisplatin: 219.0 +/- 69.2 R+V, =
n =3D 8) were correlated (r =3D 0.97, P < 0.0001) and the timing of emesis =
was consistent between the 2 methods. Apomorphine induced a decrease=20
in normogastria from 45.48% +/- 4.35% to 36.70 +/- 4.34% (n =3D 8, P <=20
0.05) but the DF of the slow waves was not changed [8.95 +/- 0.25=20
counts/min (cpm) vs 8.68 +/- 0.35 cpm, n =3D 8, P > 0.05]. Cisplatin=20
induced a decrease in normogastria from 55.83% +/- 4.30% to 29.22% +/-=20
5.16% and an increase in bradygastria from 14.28% +/- 2.32% to 31.19%=20
+/- 8.33% (n =3D 8, P < 0.001) but the DF (9.14 +/- 0.13 cpm) remained=20
unchanged (P > 0.05). The GMA changes induced by cisplatin preceded=20
the emetic response as normogastria was reduced for 1 h before the=20
onset of emesis (57.61% +/- 5.66% to 39.91% +/- 5.74%, n =3D 6, P <=20
0.05). Peri-emesis analysis revealed that the GMA was significantly=20
disturbed during and immediately after, but not immediately before,=20
the emetic episodes. CONCLUSION: The induction of emesis is reliably=20
associated with a disrupted GMA, but changes may also occur prior to=20
and following the emetic response.
PMID: 20027675 [PubMed - in process]
Brain Behav Evol. 2009 Dec 8;74(4):268-279. [Epub ahead of print]
Aquatic Environment and Differentiation of Vibrissae: Comparison of=20
Sinus Hair Systems of Ringed Seal, Otter and Pole Cat.
Hyv=E4rinen H, Palviainen A, Strandberg U, Holopainen IJ.
Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
This study investigated the structure and innervation of the vibrissal=20
systems of the pole cat (Mustela putorius), European otter (Lutra=20
lutra) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in order to find adaptations to=20
aquatic environment. The number of myelinated nerve fibers of deep=20
vibrissal nerve (DVN) of the entire vibrissal system was considerably=20
greater in the ringed seal (10x, aquatic mammal) and in the otter (4x,=20
semi-aquatic mustelid) compared to the pole cat which is a terrestrial=20
mustelid. Similarly, the number of neural end organs in the vibrissae=20
of ringed seals was about ten times more numerous than in pole cats.=20
The number of the vibrissae in the heads of otters was almost two=20
times more than in pole cats, and all vibrissa groups had similar=20
structures and innervation. The asymmetrically developed carpal=20
vibrissae of otters were, however, more poorly innervated than the=20
vibrissae of the head and had only smooth musculature. In the ringed=20
seal the orientation of lanceolate end organs differed in different=20
vibrissae, indicating the specialization of these vibrissae for=20
different kinds of sensory functions. Ringed seal vibrissae contain=20
structures which obviously are developed as adaptations to an aquatic=20
environment. These include the modified mitochondria of Merkel cells,=20
with Merkel cell-neurite complexes very often associated ciliated=20
cells, liquid filled vesicles or intercellular spaces below the basal=20
cell layer of the outer root sheath at the ring sinus level, a long=20
upper cavernous sinus and a flattened beaded structure of the vibrissa=20
hairs. As the vibrissae of aquatic mammals have analogous functions to=20
the lateral line organ of fishes, we suggest using the term 'vibrissal=20
sense' for the vibrissa system of aquatic mammals. Copyright =A9 2009 S. =
Karger AG, Basel.
PMID: 19996585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Nov 1;235(9):1049-51.
Pathology in practice. Pleuritis and bronchiolitis in a mink.
Smedley RC, Kiupel M.
Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, College of=20
Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
PMID: 19878001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 15;200(12):1884-92.
Efficient transmission of swine-adapted but not wholly avian influenza=20
viruses among pigs and from pigs to ferrets.
De Vleeschauwer A, Van Poucke S, Braeckmans D, Van Doorsselaere J, Van=20
Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent=20
University, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
BACKGROUND: Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts for the=20
transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between birds and=20
humans, but the transmissibility of AIVs among pigs and from pigs to=20
other mammals remains largely unexplored. METHODS: In an initial=20
study, we confirmed the replication potential of various low-
pathogenic AIVs in pigs and ferrets, which we used as a model for=20
humans. We then examined the transmissibility of 6 selected low-
pathogenic AIVs among pigs (by direct contact) and from pigs to=20
ferrets (by air contact). RESULTS: Although H1N1 and H3N2 swine=20
influenza viruses spread readily from inoculated pigs to contact pigs=20
and ferrets, evidence for AIV transmission was extremely rare. The=20
fact that infected pigs shed lower amounts of AIVs than of swine=20
influenza viruses may contribute to the reduced transmissibility of=20
AIVs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that swine-adapted influenza=20
viruses spread readily among pigs and from pigs to other susceptible=20
mammalians and support the notion that AIVs undergo genetic adaptation=20
to efficiently cross the species barrier. Our transmission models hold=20
potential to study the factors that lead to the generation of pandemic=20
PMID: 19919303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sukie (not a vet)
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