From: Sukie Crandall
Date: 2009-04-25 05:00:41 UTC
Subject: [ferrethealth] abstracts
To: fhl <firstname.lastname@example.org>
J Virol. 2009 Apr 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Canine Distemper Virus Selectively Inhibits Apoptosis Progression in=20
Infected Immune Cells.
Pillet S, von Messling V.
INRS - Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec, Laval (QC),=20
Morbillivirus infections are characterized by severe leukopenia and=20
immune suppression that develop even before the onset of clinical=20
signs. To characterize in more detail the fate of the immune cells=20
during the critical first week, we evaluated the overall viability,=20
level of apoptosis, cell cycle status, and extent of infection in=20
different immune tissues of ferrets inoculated with a lethal canine=20
distemper (CDV) strain. Initial experiments in MDCK cells, a canine=20
epithelial cell line, revealed that CDV infection resulted in only a=20
marginal increase in apoptosis at high infection levels, and that=20
infected cells were more resistant to chemically induced apoptosis. In=20
ferrets, levels of viability and early and late apoptosis remained=20
stable in thymus and lymph node, where more than 80% of cells were=20
infected, whereas a gradual albeit small increase in apoptosis was=20
observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and spleen.=20
Furthermore, progression of spontaneous apoptosis in infected cells=20
was inhibited, while the proportion of apoptotic non-infected=20
"bystander" cells increased. The distribution of cells in the=20
different stages of the cell cycle in the bone marrow was not=20
affected, but dividing cells in the thymus decreased by 50%, and a=20
tenfold increase in cell division was noted in the spleen. It is=20
unlikely that the extent of infection-induced cell death and cell=20
cycle alterations alone can account for the dramatic leukopenia=20
observed in this model. The investigation of additional mechanisms is=20
J Vet Med Sci. 2009 Mar;71(3):355-8.
Radiographic measurement of cardiac size in 64 ferrets.
Onuma M, Kondo H, Ono S, Ueki M, Shibuya H, Sato T.
Onuma Animal HospitalKoshigaya, Saitama, Japan.
As ferrets can suffer from a wide variety of cardiac disorders,=20
indicators for detecting cardiac abnormalities on plain chest=20
radiography are necessary. A total of 64 ferrets without heart disease=20
underwent radiography in the right lateral (RL) and ventrodorsal=20
positions (VD), and the lengths of the RL-sixth dorsal vertebra (6th=20
DV), RL- and VD-long axis (LA) and RL- and VD-short axis (SA), RL- and=20
VD- vertebral heart size, VD-length of the eighth costa (LEC) and VD-
thoracic width at the eighth thoracic vertebra (8th TV) were measured=20
to establish standard values of normal cardiac appearance. We=20
evaluated statistical differences between genders and ferrets weighing=20
< 1 kg and > or =3D 1 kg for a total of 38 items. As a result,=20
significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in all items, including=20
some differences that have been reported previously. In particular,=20
the present study established highly accurate standard values for=20
weight differences. Standard values calculated based on the 6th DV and=20
a relational expression obtained by the regression coefficient of the=20
ratio of VD-SA to VD-8th TV, VD-8th TV=3D2.887 + (0.769 x VD-SA), were=20
considered useful for evaluating normal cardiac morphology in ferrets.
Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea=20
Holmes A, Rudd J, Tattersall F, Aziz Q, Andrews P.
National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of=20
Animals in Research, London, UK.
Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms encountered in=20
medicine as either symptoms of disease or side effects of treatments.=20
Developing novel anti-emetics and identifying emetic liability in=20
novel chemical entities rely on models that can recreate the=20
complexity of these multi-system reflexes. Animal models (especially=20
the ferret and dog) are the current gold standard; however, the=20
selection of appropriate models is still a matter of debate,=20
especially when studying the subjective human sensation of nausea.=20
Furthermore, these studies are associated with animal suffering. Here,=20
following a recent workshop held to review the utility of animal=20
models in nausea and vomiting research, we discuss the limitations of=20
some of the current models in the context of basic research, anti-
emetic development and emetic liability detection. We provide=20
suggestions for how these limitations may be overcome using non-animal=20
alternatives, including greater use of human volunteers, in silico and=20
in vitro techniques and lower organisms.
Cereb Cortex. 2009 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Regional Patterns of Cerebral Cortical Differentiation Determined by=20
Diffusion Tensor MRI.
Kroenke CD, Taber EN, Leigland LA, Knutsen AK, Bayly PV.
Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health and Science=20
University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
The morphology of axonal and dendritic arbors in the immature cerebral=20
cortex influences the degree of anisotropy in water diffusion. This=20
enables cortical maturation to be monitored by the noninvasive=20
technique of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI).=20
Herein, we utilized DTI of postmortem ferret brain to quantify=20
regional and temporal patterns in cortical maturation. We found that=20
diffusion anisotropy within the isocortex decreases over the first=20
month of life, coinciding closely in time with expansion of axonal and=20
dendritic cellular processes of pyramidal neurons. Regional patterns=20
consist of differences between allocortex and isocortex, a regional=20
anisotropy gradient that closely parallels the transverse neurogenetic=20
gradient, and differences between primary and nonprimary isocortical=20
areas. By combining the temporal and regional factors, the isocortical=20
developmental gradient magnitude corresponds to a 5-day difference in=20
maturity between relatively developed rostral/caudal isocortex at the=20
gradient source and less mature isocortex at the occipital pole.=20
Additionally, the developmental trajectory of primary areas precedes=20
nonprimary areas by 2.7 days. These quantitative estimates coincide=20
with previous histological studies of ferret development. Similarities=20
in cerebral cortical diffusion anisotropy observed between ferret and=20
other species suggest the framework developed here is of general=20
FEBS J. 2009 Apr;276(8):2359-67.
Prion protein library of recombinant constructs for structural biology.
Hornemann S, Christen B, von Schroetter C, P=E9rez DR, W=FCthrich K.
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
A survey of plasmids for 51 prion protein constructs from bank vole,=20
cat, cattle, chicken, dog, elk, ferret, frog, fugu, horse, human, pig,=20
sheep, turtle, and wallaby, and for 113 mouse prion protein constructs=20
and variants thereof, is presented. This includes information on the=20
biochemistry of the recombinant proteins, in particular on successful=20
and unsuccessful expression attempts. The plasmid library was=20
generated during the past 12 years in the context of NMR structure=20
determination and biophysical characterization of prion proteins in=20
our laboratory. The plasmids are now available for general use, and=20
are distributed free of charge to not-for-profit institutions.
Sukie (not a vet)
Recommended ferret health links:
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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